Psychology - Year 12

Psychology Overview

Term 1: : Research Methods

Students will learn to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the following research methods, scientific processes and techniques of data handling and analysis, be familiar with their use and be aware of their strengths and limitations:

• Experimental method. Types of experiment, laboratory and field experiments; natural and quasi-experiments.

• Observational techniques. Types of observation: naturalistic and controlled observation; covert and overt observation; participant and non-participant observation.

• Self-report techniques. Questionnaires; interviews, structured and unstructured.

• Correlations. Analysis of the relationship between co-variables. The difference between

correlations and experiments.

Students will learn about scientific processes:

• Aims: stating aims, the difference between aims and hypotheses.

• Hypotheses: directional and non-directional.

• Sampling: the difference between population and sample; sampling techniques including:

random, systematic, stratified, opportunity and volunteer; implications of sampling

techniques, including bias and generalisation.

• Pilot studies and the aims of piloting.

• Experimental designs: repeated measures, independent groups, matched pairs.

• Observational design: behavioural categories; event sampling; time sampling.

• Questionnaire construction, including use of open and closed questions; design of interviews.

• Variables: manipulation and control of variables, including independent, dependent,

extraneous, confounding; operationalisation of variables.

• Control: random allocation and counterbalancing, randomisation and standardisation.

• Demand characteristics and investigator effects.

• Ethics, including the role of the British Psychological Society’s code of ethics; ethical issues

in the design and conduct of psychological studies; dealing with ethical issues in research.

• The role of peer review in the scientific process.

• The implications of psychological research for the economy.

  1. Students will be informally assessed throught the unit and formally assessed during the first assessment week.
Validity

The extent to which a measure actually measures what it claims to.

Reliability

Refers to the consistency of a study

Operationalisation

This refers to the way in which variables are defined and made measurable within research.

Independent variable

The variable that is manipulated in research to measures its effect on the dependent variable.

  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Students will develop an understanding of the research process involved within Psychology and the different processes of analysis used to understand the significance of data produced. They will reflect on the research process, considering ethical issues such as deception, informed consent and protection from harm.

Create a supportive community:

Students will learn to respect cultural views of research and consider whether results can be applied to all societies.

Term 1 and Term 2:: Approaches in Psychology

Students will learn about:

Origins of Psychology: Wundt, introspection and the emergence of Psychology as a science.

The basic assumptions of the following approaches:

• Learning approaches: i) the behaviourist approach, including classical conditioning and Pavlov’s research, operant conditioning, types of reinforcement and Skinner’s research; ii) social learning theory including imitation, identification, modelling, vicarious reinforcement,

the role of mediational processes and Bandura’s research.

• The cognitive approach: the study of internal mental processes, the role of schema, the use of theoretical and computer models to explain and make inferences about mental processes.

The emergence of cognitive neuroscience.

• The biological approach: the influence of genes, biological structures and neurochemistry on

behaviour. Genotype and phenotype, genetic basis of behaviour, evolution and behaviour.

  1. This unit will be assessed informally throughout, within mock exams, and also at the end of the unit. Assessments will comprise of exam style questions and essays. The essays will be written under timed conditions. As the unit progresses students will advance from writing essays with the support of plans to completing them unaided.
  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Students will develop an in-depth understanding of the different psychological approaches. They will be able to discuss the approaches and their views of the development and maintenance of behaviour.

Create a supportive community:

Students will learn to respect different views of behaviour whilst establishing a foundation for their own perspective.

Term 2:: Approaches in Psychology

Students will continue to explore the approaches Unit as described in Term 1

  1. This unit will be assessed informally throughout, within mock exams, and also at the end of the unit. Assessments will comprise of exam style questions and essays. The essays will be written under timed conditions. As the unit progresses students will advance from writing essays with the support of plans to completing them unaided.
Behaviourism

The view that human behaviour can be explained in terms of conditioning within a stimulus/response relationship in the environment.

Social Learning Theory

A learning theory which acts as a bridge between behaviourism and cognitive theory acknowledging mental processes in learning.

Cognitive approach

An approach which focuses on how people perceive, store and process information.

Biological approach

An approach which considers humans to be biological organisms providing biological explanations for psychological functions.

Psychodynamic approach

This approach suggests that unconscious repressed thoughts motivate behaviour, particularly the ones from childhood (often of a sexual nature)

Humanistic approach

An approach which focuses on the subjective experience of the individual, advocating the role of free will in behaviour.

  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Students will develop an in-depth understanding of the different psychological approaches. They will be able to discuss the approaches and their views of the development and maintenance of behaviour.

Create a supportive community:

Students will learn to respect different views of behaviour whilst establishing a foundation for their own perspective.

Term 2: : Psychopathology

Students will learn:

• Definitions of abnormality, including deviation from social norms, failure to function adequately, statistical infrequency and deviation from ideal mental health.

• The behavioural, emotional and cognitive characteristics of phobias, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

• The behavioural approach to explaining and treating phobias: the two-process model, including classical and operant conditioning; systematic desensitisation, including relaxation and use of hierarchy; flooding.

• The cognitive approach to explaining and treating depression: Beck’s negative triad and Ellis’s ABC model; cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), including challenging irrational thoughts.

• The biological approach to explaining and treating OCD: genetic and neural explanations; drug therapy.

  1. This unit will be assessed informally throughout, within mock exams, and also at the end of the unit. Assessments will comprise of exam style questions and essays. The essays will be written under timed conditions. As the unit progresses students will advance from writing essays with the support of plans to completing them unaided.
  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Create a supportive community:

Term 2: : Memory

Students will learn about:

• The multi-store model of memory: sensory register, short-term memory and long-term memory. Features of each store: coding, capacity and duration.

• Types of long-term memory: episodic, semantic, procedural.

• The working memory model: central executive, phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad

and episodic buffer. Features of the model: coding and capacity.

• Explanations for forgetting: proactive and retroactive interference and retrieval failure due to absence of cues.

• Factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony: misleading information, including leading questions and post-event discussion; anxiety.

• Improving the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, including the use of the cognitive interview.

  1. Students will be assessed informally throughout, and formally within mock exams and end of topic assessments. These will comprise of exam style questions and essays. The essays will be written under timed conditions. As the unit progresses students will advance from writing essays with the support of plans to completing them without the aid of notes or a plan.
Capacity

The measure of how many items of information that can be held in memory

Duration

A measure of how long memory can held for before it is no longer available

Coding

The way in which information is stored in memory

Multi-store model of memory

An explanation of memory based on three stores (SR, STM and LTM) and the way in which information passes between these stores.

Working memory model

An explanation of memory which concentrates on how memory is used when working on a specific task.

Central executive

The 'boss' of the WMM which co-ordinates the slave systems and their functions.

Episodic buffer

Integrates the different sources of memory in order to construct mental images.

Phonological loop

Slave system which codes speech sounds in working memory, involving maintenance rehearsal.

Visual spatial sketchpad

Slave system which codes information in terms of visual and spatial awareness.

Episodic memory

Personal memories of events, for example birthdays or anniversaries

Semantic memory

Shared memories of facts and knowledge

Procedural memory

Memory for how to do things, are automatic and require little or no conscious recall.

Interference theory

An explanation of forgetting which suggests that memories are lost when one interferes with another.

Proactive interference

Occurs when old learning interferes with new learning

Retroactive interference

Occurs when new learning interferes with past learning

Retrieval failure

A type of forgetting which occurs when there is an absence of cues

  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Understanding how memories are made and how forgetting can occur, will afford students the opportunity to develop their study skills.

Create a supportive community:

Students will be able to aid their peers who do not study psychology in their revision and study skills.

Term 3:: Memory

Students will learn about: • The multi-store model of memory: sensory register, short-term memory and long-term memory. Features of each store: coding, capacity and duration. • Types of long-term memory: episodic, semantic, procedural. • The working memory model: central executive, phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad and episodic buffer. Features of the model: coding and capacity. • Explanations for forgetting: proactive and retroactive interference and retrieval failure due to absence of cues. • Factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony: misleading information, including leading questions and post-event discussion; anxiety. • Improving the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, including the use of the cognitive interview.

  1. Students will be assessed informally throughout, and formally within mock exams and end of topic assessments. These will comprise of exam style questions and essays. The essays will be written under timed conditions. As the unit progresses students will advance from writing essays with the support of plans to completing them without the aid of notes or a plan
  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Create a supportive community:

Term 3: : Attachment

Students will learn about:

• Caregiver-infant interactions in humans: reciprocity and interactional synchrony. Stages of attachment identified by Schaffer. Multiple attachments and the role of the father.

• Animal studies of attachment: Lorenz and Harlow.

• Explanations of attachment: learning theory and Bowlby’s monotropic theory. The concepts

of a critical period and an internal working model.

• Ainsworth’s ‘Strange Situation’. Types of attachment: secure, insecure-avoidant and

insecure-resistant. Cultural variations in attachment, including van Ijzendoorn.

• Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation. Romanian orphan studies: effects of

institutionalisation.

• The influence of early attachment on childhood and adult relationships, including the role of

an internal working model.

  1. This unit will be assessed informally throughout, within mock exams, and also at the end of the unit. Assessments will comprise of exam style questions and essays. The essays will be written under timed conditions. As the unit progresses students will advance from writing essays with the support of plans to completing them unaided.
Conformity

A form of social influence which results from exposure to the position of the majority

Compliance

A type of conformity which occurs when an individual seeks acceptance from the group. They do not necessarily change their behaviour because they agree with the view.

Identification

A type of conformity whereby an individual adopts a viewpoint or behaviour because they want to be associated with a group.

Internalisation

A type of conformity whereby an individual adopts an attitude or behaviour because it is consistent with their own belief. It is a long term change.

Normative social influence

An explanation of conformity which argues that an individual adopts an attitude or behaviour due to the need to be liked or accepted by the majority.

Informational social influence

An explanation of conformity which suggests that individuals behaviour in a certain way or adopt an attitude as they believe the majority to be right.

Agentic state

A way of thinking which allows an obedient individual to consider themselves as not being responsible for their behaviour.

Legitimate authority

An individual considered to be in a position of social control within a situation

Authoritarian personality

A personality type characterised by total obedience to authority usually resulting from strict parenting and conditional love.

Internal locus of control

A belief that outcomes of actions are dependent on what we do and believe.

External locus of control

A belief that outcomes of actions are dependent on the actions of others and beyond our control

  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

An understanding of the impact of an insecure attachment will enable students to develop an appreciation of their relationships in the present and in the future.

Create a supportive community:

Term 4:: Memory

Students will be assessed informally throughout, and formally within mock exams and end of topic assessments. These will comprise of exam style questions and essays. The essays will be written under timed conditions. As the unit progresses students will advance from writing essays with the support of plans to completing them without the aid of notes or a plan

  1. This unit will be assessed informally throughout, within mock exams, and also at the end of the unit. Assessments will comprise of exam style questions and essays. The essays will be written under timed conditions. As the unit progresses students will advance from writing essays with the support of plans to completing them unaided.
  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Create a supportive community:

Term 4:: Attachment

Students will learn about: • Caregiver-infant interactions in humans: reciprocity and interactional synchrony. Stages of attachment identified by Schaffer. Multiple attachments and the role of the father. • Animal studies of attachment: Lorenz and Harlow. • Explanations of attachment: learning theory and Bowlby’s monotropic theory. The concepts of a critical period and an internal working model. • Ainsworth’s ‘Strange Situation’. Types of attachment: secure, insecure-avoidant and insecure-resistant. Cultural variations in attachment, including van Ijzendoorn. • Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation. Romanian orphan studies: effects of institutionalisation. • The influence of early attachment on childhood and adult relationships, including the role of an internal working model.

  1. This unit will be assessed informally throughout, within mock exams, and also at the end of the unit. Assessments will comprise of exam style questions and essays. The essays will be written under timed conditions. As the unit progresses students will advance from writing essays with the support of plans to completing them unaided
  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Create a supportive community:

Term 5:: Biopsychology

Students will learn about: •The nervous system •The endocrine system •Neurons and synaptic transmission • The role of adrenaline •The fight or flight response

  1. Students will be informally assessed throughout the topic, and formally within the mock exams and end of topic assessments. Assessments will comprise of exam style questions and essays. The essays will be written under timed conditions. As the unit progresses students will advance from writing essays with the support of plans to completing unseen questions.
  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Create a supportive community:

Terms 5:: Social Influence

Students will learn about:

• Types of conformity: internalisation, identification and compliance. Explanations for conformity: informational social influence and normative social influence, and variables affecting conformity including group size, unanimity and task difficulty as investigated by Asch.

• Conformity to social roles as investigated by Zimbardo.

• Explanations for obedience: agentic state and legitimacy of authority, and situational

variables affecting obedience including proximity and location, as investigated by Milgram,

and uniform. Dispositional explanation for obedience: the Authoritarian Personality.

• Explanations of resistance to social influence, including social support and locus of control.

• Minority influence including reference to consistency, commitment and flexibility.

• The role of social influence processes in social change.

  1. Students will be informally assessed throughout the topic, and formally within the mock exams and end of topic assessments. Assessments will comprise of exam style questions and essays. The essays will be written under timed conditions. As the unit progresses students will advance from writing essays with the support of plans to completing unseen questions.
Reciprocity

Refers to the way in which a caregiver and infant respond to the actions of each other with similar actions

Interactional synchronicity

Refers to the way in which caregiver and infant mirror the actions of one another.

Imprinting

An innate readiness to develop a bond with a caregiver within a set period of time

Continuity hypothesis

The notion that children who develop secure attachments go on to be emotionally secure and trusting adults

Critical period

A biologically determined period of time during which infants develop their attachments.

Internal working model

A mental model of the world, developed in childhood, which acts as a template for an individual's future relationships

Monotropy

The idea that infants develop one primary attachment which has significance in emotional development

Social releasers

A behaviour which elicits care giving, leading to an attachment.

Insecure-avoidant

A type of attachment which describes how some children avoid social interactions and intimacy

Insecure-resistant

A type of attachment which describes infants who seek and reject intimacy and interaction

Secure

A strong and happy attachment to a caregive

  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Create a supportive community:

Terms 5: : Research Methods: Part 2

Students will learn about:

Data handling and analysis

• Quantitative and qualitative data; the distinction between qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques.

• Primary and secondary data, including meta-analysis.

• Descriptive statistics: measures of central tendency – mean, median, mode; calculation of

mean, median and mode; measures of dispersion; range and standard deviation; calculation of range; calculation of percentages; positive, negative and zero correlations.

• Presentation and display of quantitative data: graphs, tables, scattergrams, bar charts, histograms.

• Distributions: normal and skewed distributions; characteristics of normal and skewed distributions.

• Analysis and interpretation of correlation, including correlation coefficients.

• Levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal and interval.

• Content analysis and coding. Thematic analysis.

Inferential testing

Students should demonstrate knowledge and understanding of inferential testing and be familiar

with the use of inferential tests.

• Introduction to statistical testing; the sign test. When to use the sign test; calculation of the sign test.

• Probability and significance: use of statistical tables and critical values in interpretation of significance; Type I and Type II errors.

• Factors affecting the choice of statistical test, including level of measurement and experimental design. When to use the following tests: Spearman’s rho, Pearson’s r, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, related t-test, unrelated t-test and Chi-Squared test.

  1. Students will informally assessed throughout the topic, and formally assessed within mock exams and end of topic assessments. These will comprise of exam style questions and essays. The essays will be written under timed conditions. As the unit progresses students will advance from writing essays with the support of plans to completing unseen questions.
Cultural relativism

The view that behaviour can only be studied within the context of the culture in which it originates

Deviation from social norms

A definition of abnormality which considers behaviour to abnormal when it does not adhere to accepted social norms

Statistical infrequency

Abnormality is defined as behaviour which is statistically rare.

Depression

A mood disorder where an individual experiences feelings of sadness and lack of interest in their usual activities.

OCD

An anxiety disorder which arises from obsessions and compulsions.

Phobias

A group of mental disorders characterised by high levels of anxiety in response to a phobic stimulus.

Systematic desensitisation

A behavioural therapy for phobias and some other anxiety disorders. Clients are gradually exposed to their phobic stimulus under relaxing conditions until anxiety is extinguished.

Flooding

A form of behavioural therapy used to treat phobias and some other anxiety disorders. A client is exposed to an extreme form of their phobic stimulus until anxiety is extinguished.

Schema

A cognitive framework which organises and interprets information in the brain.

Negative Triad

A cognitive approach to understanding depression. The focus is on how thoughts about the self, future and the world around them can lead to an individual feeling depressed.

ABC model

A cognitive approach to understanding mental disorders which focuses on how irrational thoughts can effect emotions.

CBT

Cognitive behavioural therapy works on changing maladaptive thoughts and beliefs to rational and adaptive thoughts and beliefs.

Irrational thoughts

Thoughts which are rigid and unrealistic which can lead to mental health disorders such as depression.

Concordance rate

A measure of genetic similarity.

Dopamine

A key neurotransmitter which affects motivation and drive.

Neurotransmitter

Chemical substances that play an important part in the workings of the nervous system by transmitting nerve impulses across a synapse.

GABA

A neurotransmitter which regulates excitement int he nervous system, acting as a natural form of anxiety reducer.

Noradrenaline

A neurotransmitter found mainly in the areas of the brain that are involves in governing the autonomic nervous system.

Serotonin

A neurotransmitter involved in many different behaviours such as aggression, eating behaviours, sleep and depression.

  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Create a supportive community:

Term 6:: Social Influence

Students will learn about: • Types of conformity: internalisation, identification and compliance. Explanations for conformity: informational social influence and normative social influence, and variables affecting conformity including group size, unanimity and task difficulty as investigated by Asch. • Conformity to social roles as investigated by Zimbardo. • Explanations for obedience: agentic state and legitimacy of authority, and situational variables affecting obedience including proximity and location, as investigated by Milgram, and uniform. Dispositional explanation for obedience: the Authoritarian Personality. • Explanations of resistance to social influence, including social support and locus of control. • Minority influence including reference to consistency, commitment and flexibility. • The role of social influence processes in social change.

  1. Students will be informally assessed throughout the topic, and formally within the mock exams and end of topic assessments. Assessments will comprise of exam style questions and essays. The essays will be written under timed conditions. As the unit progresses students will advance from writing essays with the support of plans to completing unseen questions.
  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Create a supportive community:

Term 6:: Research Methods: Part 2

Students will learn about: Data handling and analysis • Quantitative and qualitative data; the distinction between qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques. • Primary and secondary data, including meta-analysis. • Descriptive statistics: measures of central tendency – mean, median, mode; calculation of mean, median and mode; measures of dispersion; range and standard deviation; calculation of range; calculation of percentages; positive, negative and zero correlations. • Presentation and display of quantitative data: graphs, tables, scattergrams, bar charts, histograms. • Distributions: normal and skewed distributions; characteristics of normal and skewed distributions. • Analysis and interpretation of correlation, including correlation coefficients. • Levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal and interval. • Content analysis and coding. Thematic analysis. Inferential testing Students should demonstrate knowledge and understanding of inferential testing and be familiar with the use of inferential

  1. Students will informally assessed throughout the topic, and formally assessed within mock exams and end of topic assessments. These will comprise of exam style questions and essays. The essays will be written under timed conditions. As the unit progresses students will advance from writing essays with the support of plans to completing unseen questions.
  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Create a supportive community:

New time: New title

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  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Create a supportive community: