Physical Education - Year 12

Physical Education Overview

Term 1 - 6: Anatomy & Physiology

Students will learn about the following systems in great depth: The cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, the neuromuscular system, the muscular skeletal system and energy systems.

  1. 40 minute mid-term assessments for each of the topics above

    2 hour UCAS exam encompassing all of anatomy & physiology

Alititude Training

usually done at 2500m+ above seas level where the partial pressure of oxygen is lower.


working without oxygen.


a process which aids the removal of lactate and maintains acidity levels in the blood and muscle.


the calculation of heat in physical changes and chemical reactions.

Coupled Reaction

the product of one reaction fuels another reaction.

Direct Gas Analysis

measures the concentration of oxygen that is inspired and the concentration of carbon dioxide that is expired.

Electron Transport Chain

involves a series of chemical reactions in the cristae of the mitochondria. 34 ATP produced.

Energy Continuum

A term which describes the type of respiration used by physical activities. Whether it is aerobic and anaerobic respiration depends on the intensity and duration of the exercise.


the amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would have been consumed at rest during the same time.

Fast Component

the restoration of ATP and phosphocreatine stores and the restatuartion of myoglobin with oxygen.


a process in which glucose is converted to pyruvate to produce energy.


high intensity interval training

Indirect Calorimetry

Measures the production of CO2 and / or the consumption of O2.

Krebs Cycle

A series of cyclical chemical reactions that take place using oxygen in the matrix of the mitochondria.

Lactate Threshold

the point during exercise at which lactic acid quickly accumulates in the blood.


the point when blood lactate levels go above 4 milimoles per litre.

Oxygen Consumption

the amount of oxygen we use to produce ATP.


an energy rich phosphate compound found in the sarcoplasm of the muscles.


involves repeated rapid stretching and contracting of muscles to increase muscle power.


Speed Agility Quickness


the fluid that surrounds the nucleus of a muscle fibre and is the site where anaerobic respiration takes place.

Short Term Lactate Anaerobic

prooduces high powered energy for high intensity effort in events such as the 400m sprint.

Sub Maximal Oxygen Deficit

when there is not enough oxygen available at the start of exercise to provide all the energy (ATP) aerobically.

The Cori Cycle

the process where lactic acid is transported in the blood to the liver where it is converted to blood glucose and glycogen.

The Respiratory Exchange Ratio

the ratio of carbon dioxide produced compared to oxygen consumed.

VO2 Max

The maximum volume of oxygen that can be taken up by the muscles per minute.


The capacity of the heart to generate its own impulses.

Sinoatrial Node

Pacemaker of the heart.

Atrioventricular Node

This node relays the impulse from the SA Node to the lower parts of the heart.


Contraction of the heart.

Bundle of His

Cells that transmit electrical impulses.

Purkinje Fibres

Fibres that conduct impulses to the ventricle walls.

Sympathetic System

Helps to speed up heart rate.

Parasympathetic System

Helps to decrease Heart rate.


detect changes in blood acidity.


Detect pressure changes in the blood vessels.


Stress hormone which increases heart rate.

Stroke Volume

Volume of blood that leaves the heart per beat.


Relaxing / filling of the heart.

Ejection Fraction

The percentage of blood pumped out per beat.

Cardiac Output

The volume of blood pumped out per beat.

Cardiac Hypertrophy

The thickening of muscular wall of the heart.


A decrease in resting heart rate, below 60 bpm.


occurs when arteries harden and narrow as they become clogged up fatty deposits.


A fatty deposit found in the inner lining of an artery.


Chest pain caused by restriction of coronary blood vessels.


Blood supply to the brain is cut off.

Steady State

Where the athlete is able to meet the oxygen demand with the oxygen supply.

Blood Pressure

The force exerted by the blood against the blood vessel wall.

Systolic Pressure

The pressure in the arteries when the ventricles are contracting.

Diastolic Systolic

The pressure in the arteries when the ventricles are contracting.

Venous Return

The return of blood to the right side of the heart via the vena cava.


The fluid part of the blood.


An iron containing pigment found in the red blood cells.


An iron containing pigment found in muscles.


powerhouse of the cell.

Bohr Shift

When an increase in blood carbon dioxide and a decrease in pH results in a reduction of the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen.


A measure of acidity.

Vascular Shunt Mechanism

The redistribution of cardiac output.


The widening of the blood vessel to increase the flow of blood into the capillaries.


The narrowing of the blood vessels to reduce blood flow into the capillaries.

Arterio-venous difference

The difference between the oxygen content of the arterial blood arriving blood arriving at the muscles and the venous blood leaving the muscles.


The movement of gas molecules from an area of high concentration or partial pressure to an area of low concentration or partial pressure.

Gaseous Exchange

The movement of oxygen from the air into the blood, and carbon dioxide from the blood into the air.

Tidal Volume

Volume of air breathed in or out per breath.

Inspiratory Reserve Volume

Volume of air that can be forcibly inspired after a normal breath.

Expiratory Reserve Volume

Volume of air that can be forcibly expired after a normal breath.

Residual Volume

The amount of air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration.


A device that is used to measure the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs.

Partial Pressure

The pressure exerted by an individual gas when it exists within a mixture of gases.

Diffusion Gradient

It explains how gases flow from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.


Sensory receptors found in muscles and joints that provide information to the central nervous system about position and movement.


tiny hairs which sweep away fluids and particles.


chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


working in the presence of oxygen.


where muscles become bigger and stronger.

Motor Unit

A motor neurone and its muscle fibres.

Motor Neurone

Nerve cells which transmit the brains instructions.

Neuromuscular Junction

Where the motor neurone and muscle fibre meet.

All or none law

Where a sequence of impulses has to be of sufficient intensity to stimulate all the muscle fibres in a motor unit in order for them to contract. If not, none of them contract.

Wave summation

Where there is a repeated nerve impulse with no time to relax so a smooth, sustained contraction occurs, rather than twitches.

Tetanic Contraction

A sustained muscular contraction caused by a series of fast repeating stimuli.

Spatial Summation

When the strength of a contraction changes by altering the number and size of the muscles motor units.

Muscle spindles

These detect how far and how fast a muscle is being stretched and produce a stretch reflex.

Golgi tendon organs

These are activated when there is tension in a muscle.

Isometric contraction

Where there is tension in a muscle but no visible movement.

Autogenic inhibition

Where there is a sudden relaxation of the muscle in response to high tension. The receptors involved in this process are golgi tendon organs.


bones that meet at a joint and ove.

Sagittal Plane

Divides the body into left and right halves.

Frontal Plane

Splits the body into front and back halves.

Transverse Plane

divides the body into top and bottom halves.

Transverse Axis

runs from side to side.

Sagittal Axis

runs from front to back.

Longitudinal Axis

runs from top to bottom.


decreasing the angle at the joint.


Increasing the angle at the joint

Plantar Flexion

pointing the toes

Dorsi Flexion

pulling the toes up.

Hyper extension

Increasing the angle beyond 180 degrees.


the muscle that is responsible for movement to occur.


The muscle that works in opposition to the agonist.


when a muscle shortens under tension.


when a muscle lengthens under tension.

Isometric Contraction

when a muscle is under tension but there is no visible movement.

  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Students learn about how the body works in different situations. Through learning more about the human body students should value their body more and aim to maintain or improve health and fitness.

Create a supportive community:

Teacher will assist the student where help is required

Term 1 - 6: Skill Aquisition

Students will learn about the transfer of learning and practice. Time will be spent exploring how guidance and feedback can influence skill aquisition. Students will learn about reaction time & anticipation. The schema theory will be discussed and evaluated. Students will also spend time in this unit learning how to analyse performance.

  1. 40 minute mid-term assessments for each of the topics above

    2 hour UCAS exam encompassing all of skill aquisition


the learned ability to bring about predetermined results with the minimum oulay of time, energy or both.


the rehearsal of skills.


a sliding scale used to classify things.

Cognitive Stage

the early stage of learning.


a permanent change in behaviouras a result of practice.


information to aid error correction.

Drive reduction

an end of task period when performance may get worse.


information received that can be seen, heard or felt.


a process of reinforcement


the process of strengthening a response.


having the drive to do the task.

Social Development

learning by association with others.

Information Processing

the methods by which data from the environment are collected and utilised.

Selective attention

filtering relevant information from irrelevant information.


the process of coding and interpreting sensory information.

The memory system

contains a series of memory stores.


breaking the skilled action into parts or sub-routines.

Schema Theory

a concise method of storing information.

Reaction Time

the time taken from the onset of a stimulus to the onset of a response.

Movement Time

the taken to complete a task.

Response Time

the time taken from the onset of a stimulus to the completion of a task.


pre-judging a stimulus.

  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Students learn about how the body works in different situations. Through learning more about the human body students should value their body more and aim to maintain or improve health and fitness.

Create a supportive community:

Teacher will assist student if support if required on a topic.

Term 1 - 6: Sport & Society

Students will learn about what sport and society looked like pre 1780. They will then progress through to look at the difference between industrial and pre-industrial sport. A good portion of the unit will be spent on the evolution of sport post world war II. Finally, students will learn about the impact of sport on society and impact of society on sport.

  1. 40 minute mid-term assessments for each of the topics above

    2 hour UCAS exam encompassing all of sport and society

Feudal System

a two tier system. Working class / Upper class

Popular Recreation

the sports played by preindustrial society.

Rational Recreation

organised games played by the middle classes.

Industrial Revolution

where Britain developed an urban population due to an increase in factories.


large numbers of people migrating from rural areas into towns and cities.


the gradual organisation and defining of the rules.


a person who plays sport for the love of it and receives no financial gain.


a person who plays sport for financial gain.

Golden Triangle

refers to the relationship between sport, business and the media.


the process of attempting to gain money from an activity.


A lifelong process where members of a society learn its norms, values, ideas, practices and roles in order to take their place in that society.

Social Control

a concept that refers to the way in which peoples thoughts, feelings, appearance and behaviour are regulated in social systems.

Social Action Theory

a way of viewing socialisation, emphasising social action.


the unfair treatment of a person or, minority group, to make a distinction and act on a prejudice.


A set of beliefs or ideas based on the assumption that races have distinct hereditary characteristics that give some races an intrinsic superiority over others, it may lead to physical or verbal abuse.

  • Spiritual
  • Moral
  • Social
  • Cultural
Develop the individual:

Students learn about the link between sport and society. This will help the individual understand that sport can have an effect and impact on society.

Create a supportive community:

Teacher will go out of their way to support those who are finding certain topics difficult.